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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SAMPLING
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Vapours and Dusts are Hazardous

Occupational Health Sampling

SMI Analytical is able to analyse for most of the substances that are regulated by the Occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993 and the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations Act of 1995

We can assist you with setting up your air sampling requirements and aid with filters, sampling pumps and other accessories you might require.

We have sophisticated GC-SAW instrumentation that is geared at doing rapid and cost effective analysis of PAH's (Poly-cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and other VOC's (Volatile Organic Carbons) in air and water samples .The analysis of Heavy Metals and other inorganic hazards are done on ICP or AA in accordance with Internationally accepted methods and standards .Hazardous Fumes can be identified and quantified on various Personal Air Sampling Tubes (Active Carbon,Tenax etc.).Hazardous dust analysis can be performed directly on filter or by filter dissolution.

Other respirable hazards like diesel fumes and other emissions can be quantified in the workplace.

SMI Analytical is dedicated to ensuring a safe non-polluting work environment for all.


Personal Air Sampling Equipment for Dust and Fume Sampling

The extracts from relevant laws outline the importance and commitment required by companies to ensure worker safety and abide by Government Regulations

Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1993, in Accordance with Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations of 1995

1. Where the inhalation of an HCS (Hazardous Chemical Substance) is concerned, an employer contemplated in regulation 5(4) shall ensure that the measurement programme of the airborne concentrations of the HCS to which an employee is exposed, is:

a. carried out in accordance with the provisions of these regulations;

b. carried out only after the relevant health and safety representative or relevant health and safety committee has been informed thereof and given a reasonable opportunity to comment thereon;

c. carried out by an approved inspection authority or by a person whose ability to do the measurements is verified by an approved inspection authority;

d. representative of the exposure of employees to the airborne HCS in accordance with the provisions of subregulation (2); and

e. verified in accordance with the provisions of subregulation (3) if the measurements are carried out by a person who is not an approved inspection authority.

2. In order to comply with the provisions of subregulation (1).(d) an employer shall;

a. ensure that the measurement programme, in the case of a group measurement, makes provision for the selection of the number of persons for a sample to be done as contemplated in chapters 3 and 4 and Technical Appendix A of the OESSM: Provided that such sample size shall be chosen for the top 10% of the group at the 95% confidence level for an HCS with a control limit and for the top 10% of the group at th 90% confidence level for an HCS with a recommended limit; and

b. carry out the representative measurements at least every 12 months for an HCS with a control limit and at least every 24 months for an HCS with a recommended limit: Provided that whenever the control limit or recommended limit which has been prescribed for an HCS is exceeded, the provisions of regulation 10 shall apply.

3. In order to comply with the provisions of subregulation (1).(e), an employer shall obtain the service of an approved inspection authority who shall, at intervals not exceeding 24 months:

a. verify, by examining the measurement and analysis equipment of the employer and questioning the person referred to in subregulation (1).(c), regarding the carrying out of the measurement programme;

b. carry out the measurements prescribed by subregulation's (1) and (2) for any one group; and

c. enter the results of the investigation and measurements as contemplated in paragraphs (a) and (b) respectively in the record required by regulation 9.

General duties of employers to their employees in Act 85 of 1993

8.1) Every employer shall provide and maintain, as far as is reasonably practicable, a working environment , that is safe and without risk to the health of his employees.

General duties of employers and self-employed persons to persons other than their employees in Act 85 of 1993

9.1) Every employer shall conduct his undertaking in such a manner as to ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, that persons other than those in his employment who may be directly affected by his activities are not thereby exposed to hazards to their health or safety.

The following hazardous substances are listed as Carcinogens or possible Carcinogens in the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations Act of 1995

  • AcetaldehydeCH3CHO
  • AcrylamideCH2=CHCONH2
  • AcrylonitrileCH2=CHCN
  • AldrinC12H8Cl6
  • Allyl ChlorideCH2=CHCH2Cl
  • 4-Aminodiphenyl
  • Amitrole
  • Aniline and homologuesC6H5NH2
  • Anisidine (o & p) isomersNH2C6H4OCH3
  • Antimony compounds - as SbSb
  • Arsenic and compounds except Arsine (as As)As
  • ArsineAsH3
  • Asbestos - all forms
  • Asphalt - petroleum fumes
  • Benz(a)anthracene
  • BenzeneC6H6
  • Benzidine
  • Benzo(b)flouranthene
  • Benzo(a)pyrene
  • Benzyl acetate
  • Benzyl ChlorideC6H5CH2Cl
  • Beryllium and compounds - as BeBe
  • 1,3-Butadiene (Buta-1,3-diene)CH2=CHCH=CH2
  • tert-Butyl Chromate - as CrO3
  • Cadmium compoundsCd
  • Calcium Chromate
  • Captafol (ISO)C10H9Cl4NO2S
  • Captan (ISO)C9H8Cl3NO2S
  • Carbon BlackC
  • Carbon TetrachlorideCCl4
  • Chlordane (ISO)C10H6Cl8
  • Chlorinated Camphene (Toxaphene)
  • Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine)
  • Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)
  • ChloroformCHCl3
  • bis(Chloromethyl) ether
  • Chloromethyl methyl ether
  • beta-ChloropreneCH2=CClCH=CH2
  • Chromite Ore processing - as Cr
  • Chromium IV compounds
  • Chromyl Chloride
  • Chrysene
  • Coal Tar pitch volatiles - as cyclohexane solubles
  • Cobalt metal - dust and fumesCo
  • CrotonaldehydeCH3CH=CHCHO
  • DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)C14H9Cl5
  • DiazomethaneCH2N2
  • DichloroacetyleneClCCCl
  • p-DichlorobenzeneC6H4Cl2
  • 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
  • 1,4-Dichloro-2-butene
  • Dichloroethyl ether
  • 1,3-DichloropropeneCHClCHCH2Cl
  • Dieldrin (ISO)C12H6Cl6O
  • Diglycidyl ether (DGE)(OCH2CHCH2)2O
  • Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride
  • 1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine
  • Dimethyl sulphate(CH3)2SO4
  • DinitrotolueneCH3C6H3(NO2)2
  • DioxaneOCH2CH2OCH2CH2
  • Di-sec-octyl phthalate
  • EpichlorohydrinOCH2CHCH2Cl
  • Ethyl acrylateCH2=CHCOOC2H5
  • Ethyl bromideC2H5Br
  • Ethylene dibromideBrCH2CH2Br
  • Ethylene dichlorideClCH2CH2Cl
  • Ethylene imineCH2CH2NH
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Formaldehyde
  • Gasoline
  • Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxideC10H5Cl7
  • Hexachlorobenzene - Skin
  • Hexachlorobutadiene
  • HexachloroethaneCCl3CCl3
  • Hexamethyl phosphoramide
  • HydrazineNH2NH2
  • Lead - inorganic dusts and fumes - as Pb
  • Lead Chromate
  • LindaneC6H5Cl6
  • Methoxychlor (ISO)C16H15Cl3O2
  • Methyl bromide - SkinCH3Br
  • Methyl chlorideCH3Cl
  • Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane)CH2Cl2
  • 4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)
  • 4,4'-Methylene dianilineH2NC6H4CH2C6H4NH2
  • Methyl hydrazine
  • Methyl iodideCH3I
  • beta-Naphthylamine
  • Nickel metal and insoluble compounds
  • Nickel, soluble compounds as Ni
  • p-Nitrochlorobenzene
  • 4-Nitrodiphenyl
  • 2-NitropropaneCH3CH(NO2)CH3
  • N-Nitrosodimethylamine
  • Oil mist, mildly refined cont. benzene
  • PentachlorophenolC6Cl5OH
  • Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene)CCl2=CCl2
  • N-Phenyl-beta-naphthylamine
  • o-PhenylenediamineC6H4(NH2)2
  • Phenylglycidylether (Phenyl-2,3-epoxypropylether)C6H5OCH2CHCH2O
  • PhenylhydrazineC6H5NHNH2
  • Propane sultone
  • beta-Propiolactone
  • Propylene dichloride
  • Propylene imine
  • Propylene oxide
  • Rosin, core solder pyro products - formaldehyde
  • Strontium chromate as Cr
  • Styrene, monomerC6H5CHCH2
  • 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
  • Tetranitromethane
  • o-Tolidine
  • o-Toluidine
  • p-Toluidine
  • 1,1,2-TrichloroethaneCH2ClCHCl2
  • Trichloroethylene
  • 1,2,3-TrichloropropaneCH2ClCHClCH2Cl
  • 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)CH3C6H2(NO2)3
  • Uranium, all compounds - as UU
  • Vinyl acetateCH3COOCHCH2
  • Vinyl bromideCH2CHBr
  • Vinyl chloride
  • 4-Vinyl cyclohexene
  • Vinyl cyclohexene dioxideC6H12O2
  • Vinylidene chloride
  • Welding fumes
  • Wood dust (certain hardwoods)
  • Soft wood dusts
  • Xylidene, mixed isomers(CH3)2C6H3NH2
  • Zinc chromates

Occupational Exposure Limits

Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1993 in Accordance with the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations of 1995

(OEL) Occupational Exposure Limits - Recomended Control Limits. (TWA) Time Weighted Average

Substance

TWA OEL-RL ppm

TWA OEL-RL mg/m

Short Term OEL-RL ppm

Short Term OEL-RL mg/m

 

Acrylamide
CH2=CHCONH2

-

0.3

-

-

 

Acrylonitrile
CH2=CHCN

2

4

 

 

 

Arsenic and compounds
As

-

0.1

-

-

except Arsine (as As)

Asbestos - all forms
 

 

 

 

 

See Asbestos Regulations

Benzene
C6H6

5

16

 

 

 

Bis-(chloromethyl) ether (BCME)
ClCH2OCH2Cl

0.001

0.005

 

 

New

Buta-1,3-diene
CH2=CHCH=CH2

10

22

 

 

 

2-Butoxyethanol (EGBE)
C4H9OCH2CH2OH

25

120

 

 

 

Cadmium compounds except CdO fumes and CdS
Cd

-

0.05

-

-

 

Cadmium Oxide fumes
CdO

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

Cadmium Sulphide pigments (respirable dust Cd)
CdS

 

0.04

 

 

 

Carbon Disulphide
CS2

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

Chromium IV compounds
 

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

1,2 Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide)

BrCH2CH2Br

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

Dichloromethane
CH2Cl2

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

2,2'Dichloro-4,4'methylene dianiline (MbOCA)

CH3(C6H3ClNH2)2

 

0.005

 

 

2-Ethoxyethanol
C2H5OCH2CH2OH

10

37

 

 

2-Ethoxyethyl acetate
C2H5OCH2CH2OOCCH3

10

54

 

 

Ethylene oxide
 

5

10

 

 

 

Formaldehyde
 

2

2.5

2

2.5

 

Grain dust

 

10

 

 

Hydrogen cyanide
 

 

 

10

10

Isocyanate (all isomers)
as NCO

 

0.02

 

0.07

Lead and compounds- as Pb
 

 

 

 

 

See the Lead Regulations

2-Methoxyethanol
CH3OCH2CH2OH

5

16

 

 

2-Methoxyethyl acetate
CH3COOCH2CH2OCH3

5

24

 

 

Nickel
Ni

 

0.05

 

 

 

Nickel compounds
as Ni

 

0.1 0.5

 

 

soluble insoluble

Rubber process dust
 

 

8

 

 

Rubber fume
 

 

0.6

 

 

 

Silica crystalline
SiO2

 

0.4

 

 

respirable dust

Styrene
C6H5CHCH2

100

420

250

1050

 

1,1,1-Trichloroethane
CH3CCl3

350

1900

450

2450

 

Trichloroethylene
CCl2=CHCl

100

535

150

802

Vinyl chloride
CH2=CHCl

7

 

 

 

annual TWA OEL-CL of 3 ppm

Vinylidene chloride
CH2=CCl2

10

40

 

 

 

Wood dust (hard wood)
 

 

5

 

 

This pages information reflects Goverment Laws in effect as off 31st May 2006
Disclaimer: The liability of SMI ANALYTICAL is limited to the cost of analysis. SMI ANALYTICAL indemnifies itself from any legal action which may be instituted against it due to supplied data. SMI ANALYTICAL accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any results released, however used. No part of this document may reproduced in part or in full unless permission from SMIANALYTICAL is granted in writing. This document may not be altered in any way whatsoever and is printed without correction.

Occupational Health and Safety Links and Analytical Chemistry Links

American NIOSH
USA NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods
University of Cambridge - Analytical Chemistry Journals
The Clay Minerals Society - Online Courses, Lectures, and Labs
Sheffield Chemdex is the directory of analytical chemistry on the World-Wide Web
Diagnosing Silicosis and other Lung Diseases

Analytical Lab

SMI Analytical Laboratory Services / Chemical Laboratory Services specializes in quantitative X-Ray diffraction Occupational Health Sampling: hazardous chemical substances, pollution levels, pollution workplace,occupational health and safety act 85 of 1993,hazardous chemical substances regulations act of 1995, occupational health lab, occupational health laboratory, PAH sampling, hazardous substances, pollution monitoring, VOC, volatile organic carbon, heavy metal analysis, asbestos, air monitoring, air sampling, diesel fumes, diesel fume analysis, respirable hazards, inhalable hazards, workplace safety, silica, silica dust, cancer causing agents, personal air sampling, welding vapours, volatile organic compound, Voc,industrial hygiene, worker safety, laboratory, site:, =, '.co.za', SA, RSA, za, 'loc:za'
TiO2+ (aq) + 2H2 + e = Ti3+ + H2O     E0=ca.0.1V

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